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Galician and Portuguese in the Iberian Peninsula

Galician and Portuguese have a common historical origin, staying mainly undifferentiated from the primitive period to the end of the XIV century. It was the diverging historical evolution of Galicia and Portugal (mainly the separated political paths of both countries) what determined the formation of both languages, similar but clearly distinguishable. This explains that the linguistic borders of Galicia and Portugal almost totally coincide with their political frontier. Anyway, the dialects of northern Portugal, specially to the north of the river Duero, maintain some common features with Galician which distinguish them from standard Portuguese, which has its center in the capital, Lisbon. For example: the same pronunciation for <b> and <v>, pronunciation of diphthong /ou/ (reduced to /o/ in standard Portuguese) and the affricate pronunciation of <ch> (realized as <x> in standard Portuguese)