circa 1200-1350. Lyrical springtime splendor of the Troubadours:
The flowers of my loved-one

The 13th century saw the blossoming of the school of lyrical poetry of the troubadours, favored by the kings of Castile-Leon, above all Alfonso X (king from 1252-84), and those of Portugal, especially Don Denís (1278-1325), two of the most important authors of the Cancioneiros (anthology of lyric poems). Some of the most inspired poets of the Galician language, such as Martín Codax, Johan Airas de Santiago, Airas Nunes, Paio Gomez Chariño, and Pero Meogo are present in the Cancioneiros.
Alfonso X is also attributed with the authorship of the Cantigas de Santa María (Songs of Saint Mary), one of the pinnacles of medieval European culture, which are gathered together in richly illuminated magnificent codices.